In 1939, the ISO (International Organization of Standardization) established the standard A 440 Hz tuning that is used today. Prior to this standard tuning, the international community was deeply divided. The earliest effort of a standard A tuning at 440 Hz was by the Congress of Stuttgart in 1834. This early standard was not followed, but it did pave the way towards getting the international community to begin thinking about a standard tuning. Various other groups proposed standard A tunings of 448 Hz (France) and 424 Hz (England) as well as other variations. Once ISO clarified and declared a standard, the rest of the world seemed to conform and adopt the ISO standard. Tuning strings has, and continues to be a part of being a musician. Pitch pipes and tuning forks were the tool of choice by musicians before affordable electronic tuners came along. Today electronic tuners have simplified the job of tuning considerably. It is not uncommon to see a quartz accurate tuner today for less than twenty U.S. dollars. In fact, if you are a string player, one of these little electronic devices is a "must have" item for your instrument.